### What they need to know

**In Math**, children use addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to solve word problems. They tackle measurement of volume, mass, and time. They learn more about fractions—creating equal fractions, comparing the size of fractions, adding and subtracting fractions, and multiplying fractions by whole numbers. They also start to understand the relationship between fractions and decimals.

**In English**, students will read more challenging literature, articles, and other texts, building vocabulary. They will be expected to explain what they have read by referring to details or information from the text. In writing, students will organize their ideas and develop topics with reasons, facts, details, and other information.

### Math

**Place value**

To find the area of this rectangle, students can first break it down into three parts. The length of each part can then be multiplied by the width of 18.

18(600+40+9) = 18×600+18×40+18×9.

Students use the concepts of area and place value as strategies to multiply multi-digit numbers.

Students learn that 649 x 18 is also equal to (649 x 10) + (649 x 8).

**Fractions**

Students will use the number line to break fractions into smaller fractions and to show that 2⁄6=1⁄3

**Classroom task: Chocolate bar fractions**

**Part 1**

John is giving out chocolate to his friends. If he wants to give each friend 2⁄3 of a chocolate bar and he has 13 friends, how many chocolate bars will he need to buy? Use words, a model, or an equation to justify your answer.

**Part 2**

William buys 4 chocolate bars and each bar weighs 1⁄4 pound. Mary buys 2 chocolate bars and each one weighs 1⁄2 pound. William claims that the chocolate weighs the same amount. Mary disagrees. Who is correct? Use a model and words to justify your answer.

**Help children outside school**

**1.** Use everyday objects to help your child explore the concept of fractions. For example: Use measuring cups so students see how many times you have to refill a 1⁄4 cup to equal a 1⁄2 cup or how many 1⁄3's are in two cups. Have students describe two fractions that are equal by using a measuring cup (filling a 1⁄4 measuring cup twice is the same as filling one 1⁄2 measuring cup).

**2.** Have your child write or describe fractions in different ways. For example: What are some different ways to make 3⁄4? Answers could include 1⁄4+1⁄4+1⁄4 or 3 x 1⁄4

**3.** Ask your child to create and describe equal fractions. For example: Have students take a sheet of paper, fold the paper in half, and then unfold and shade 1⁄2. Then have students take the same sheet of paper and fold the paper in a half again. Unfold the paper and have students discuss the number of parts that are now shaded. Encourage your child to talk about ways to show that 1⁄2 = 2⁄4. (Students may continue this process by creating other equal fractions.)

### English

**Reading literature**

- Determine the theme of a story, play, or poem from details in the text and summarize the text.
- Compare and contrast the points of view in different stories; know the difference between first- and third-person accounts.

**Reading for information**

- Refer to details and examples when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
- Interpret information in charts, graphs, or other visual sources; explain how the information contributes to understanding the text.

**Writing**

- Introduce a topic clearly and develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information.
- Give a concluding statement or section.
- Group related information in paragraphs and sections and use formatting (such as headings), illustrations, and multimedia.
- Link ideas in categories of information with words and phrases (e.g. another, also, because).
- Use precise language and subject-specific vocabulary.

**Classroom task:**

Read the article, "John Muir: The Conservationist on the Quarter"

Write an essay using key details from the text to explain why John Muir devoted his life to conservation, and describe the effect his work had on preserving the beauty of nature.

The essay should include:

- An introduction with at least two sentences that summarize the article
- A focus that describes Muir's effect on preserving nature
- Use simple and compound sentences
- Use examples from the text and descriptive words to convey your idea
- Use transitional words to connect your ideas
- Write a conclusion that connects to your focus
- Use correct punctuation and spelling

### Answers

Chocolate bar fractions, Part 1:

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